Reveille

Hope for the future, learning from Aceh

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A little geography.

Aceh is part of the Republic of Indonesia. It is not governed as a regular province but is considered a special region or territory of the country. Located at the northern end of Sumatra, its capital is Banda Aceh and has a population of just over 5 million. Aceh has a history of political turmoil and resistance to outsiders, be they Dutch colonizers or the central government in Jakarta.

When I served in Indonesia, one of the places I visited was the city of Lhokseumawe in Aceh, site of the Asean Aceh Fertilizer Project, one of the first attempts at Asean economic cooperation. At that time, Aceh was the scene of fighting between the Free Aceh Movement (FAM), a separatist group seeking independence from Indonesia, and government forces. I recall that on my visit, security was tight because of continuing clashes between FAM elements and the Indonesian Armed Forces.

* * *

On Dec. 26, 2004, an Indian Ocean undersea earthquake, registering 9.0 in intensity, triggered a tsunami that hit Aceh in Indonesia, Phuket in Thailand, and several other countries in the region. According to the US Geological Survey, the earthquake had the force of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs. It resulted in the death of close to 200,000 people in Aceh alone, leaving half a million homeless. The tragedy was compounded a few months later with a second earthquake in March 2005 affecting the area between Aceh and Nias, off north Sumatra. Most of the western coast of Aceh was devastated with many towns wiped off the map completely. Of the 320,000 residents of the capital Banda Aceh, more than half were estimated to have been killed or missing.

Two months after the tsunami, former US presidents, George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, visited Aceh. They described the destruction as unimaginable, noting that inventory and distribution systems for relief were poor although they said that better procedures were being set up. That

appears to be the same observation that foreigners visiting Tacloban after Supertyphoon “Yolanda” got.

Following growing concern and complaints about the slow pace of rehabilitation and reconstruction in Aceh and Nias, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono established a high-powered agency known as the BRR (Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency for Aceh and Nias),

appointing a former minister of mines and energy to head the office.

As head of the new agency, Dr. Kuntoro Mangkusubroto quickly improved reconstruction efforts with better levels of coordination and speed. In particular, he focused on

accelerating construction of permanent housing for more than 500,000 Acehnese, the majority of whom were living in tent camps. The drive included some 30,000 new houses built by the end of 2005, an impressive feat considering that Indonesia’s annual construction rate was 60,000 houses nationwide. BRR’s second priority was infrastructure starting with roads but expanding to include schools, hospitals, harbors and religious facilities. The third priority was rebuilding livelihood, a process of clearing tsunami debris to allow recultivation of rice paddies and fishponds. Highly sensitive to the issue of corruption, Mangkusubroto established verifiable protocols for the disbursement of funds.

By mid-April 2009, or some four years after the tsunami, the agency was able to turn over reconstruction work to the provincial government of Aceh. Overall the BRR was hailed by the international community as a success story. It had built over 130,000 houses, 1,759 school buildings, 363 bridges, and 13 airports in a span of three years. No major corruption scandal affected the various projects and the results vastly exceeded early expectations.

* * *

My thoughts on the work ahead of us.

We ought to focus on just a few things.

First, we need a similar high-powered agency headed by a “take charge” guy who can make things happen with clarity and speed. Somehow I recall an interview with Social Welfare Secretary Dinky Soliman. A few days after Yolanda, she was asked: Who is in charge? Her reply: Secretary Mar Roxas and I serve as vice chair while Secretary Volts Gazmin is the chair. We consult with each other and work together.

The question was repeated: Who is in charge? Her reply, with some irritation, was the same.

By the way, has anyone contacted the Indonesian government, in particular Doctor Mangkusubroto, for advice and assistance? There is a lot we can learn from the Aceh experience. The Indonesians have significant expertise in disaster management. News reports mention that Mangkusubroto has this advice for us: Prepare for frustration and inflation. Survivors will get angry about living in tents well before houses are ready, and inflation will make those houses more expensive to build. He adds: Prepare warehouses all over the region and fill them with construction material. Fix the prices now.

Energy Secretary Jericho Petilla appears to have been designated as a key officer in the reconstruction efforts. Not much is known about Petilla. Let us hope he is the right man for the job. The last thing we need in the present situation

is politics.

Second, we all need patience, patience, and more patience. The road to recovery will be long and difficult: Miracles are not going to happen. But if we have the right people on the job, and everyone lends a helping hand, we can

accomplish a lot. Tacloban, Basey, Guiuan, and other communities in the disaster area will rise again. Word has just come in of a remote island off Coron in Palawan—Ocam-ocam—whose residents have not been reached by relief

efforts. They have been isolated for 13 days.

Third, in the midst of all the hardship that our countrymen are facing, we must have faith in the Almighty. But we have a tendency to leave everything to God (Bahala na ang Diyos!) forgetting that here on Earth, God’s work must truly be our own.

One last word. In August 2005, seven months after the tsunami hit Aceh, a peace agreement was entered into

between FAM and the Indonesian government. The peace talks were facilitated by a Finland-based NGO, the Crisis Management Initiative. Aceh received special autonomous status and government troops were withdrawn in exchange for disarmament. After eight years, peace in Aceh continues to hold.

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  • buninay1

    The grim task of counting the dead is over. We have to move on and the Aceh experience should be highly instructive. The key points are to have the rehabilitation effort immunized from corruption and to place the right people on the ground to buckle down to the gargantuan job ahead of them.

  • eirons1043

    I just hope that Pnoy has read ur column today Mr. F. Meron na palang model na gagayahin na lang. If Petilla is a former Congressman he is not fitted for the job 1,000%. Removed him asap dahil tyak ang corruption. From now on dapat pwera lahat ang former congressman at Senator na humawak ng kahit anong cabinet position dahil tyak ang corruption.

  • Boy_Paco

    Nonsense! We don’t have to learn from Aceh, we don’t have to ask the people to be patient, or have expertise in disaster management. It is all about corruption and jailing the grafters whilst to keep on monitoring and auditing the governors and mayors. Ensure that those governors and mayors of disaster prone areas provide sturdy concrete housing, build a disaster proof multipurpose halls or evacuation centers on the uplands and educate their constituents including on disaster preparedness and emergency response. Look at those more than five (5) thousand poor souls that perished they lived along the shore to just fish to have something to eat with most probably no hope to own a concrete house.

    • anne_203

      No man is an island. I think its worthwhile pick up a few ideas from the Aceh experience.

  • WalterPaulKomarnicki

    perhaps we can ask honest and efficient organizations like Gawad Kalinga to take over the reconstruction?
    Above all, we need a trustworthy and responsible and transparent body to ensure that it is only the victims who benefit, not any kawatans, looters and plunderers.

  • tarikan

    Personally, I think Energy Sec. Jericho Petilla is just right to head the reconstruction effort. I think he is an engineer (can’t think why a lawyer would head an energy dept.) and must be a level-headed if not smart individual. Gen. Voltz Gazmin? He was supposed to head the triumvirate of Mar Roxas and Dinky Soliman but he (Gazmin) was scarce. A general who earned his spurs being a close-in security to Cory and now to her son? Col. Farolan, you know what the “old dawgs” call this kind of general — paper pusher. Hey, tell me his front line exploits if he had one. Certainly my opinion of him stands corrected.

  • les21reago

    This administration of Pnoy is all the telling of Leadership
    Impasse!!!

    “Energy Secretary Jericho Petilla appears to have been
    designated as a key officer in the reconstruction efforts. Not much is known
    about Petilla.”

    The Guy Petilla is a Balimbing and now LP party mates.
    This ADMIN pretends to be boasting young leadership but is full of IMPASSE.

    Here are statements worth taking to unmasking their indolent doing and did not happen.

    naka-standby na rin po ang 32 eroplano at helicopter ng

    ating air force,nakahanda narin po ang 20 barko mula sa ating phil. navy sa

    cebu, bicol, cavite at zamboanga, ang mga relief goods naman ay naka
    pre-position

    narin sa karamihan na apektado o maaring maapektuhang lalawigan… umasa po

    kayong darating kaagad ang tulong paghupa ng bagyo.

    Paging Sec. COLOMA takes the ADVISED of Retired General
    FAROLAN and set its course IMMEDIATELY.

  • NegaStarr

    “Energy Secretary Jericho Petilla appears to have been designated as a key officer in the reconstruction efforts.”

    The saddest part of Mr Farolan’s column. Sigh.

  • Ligaya

    Very well said, Mr. Farolan. So much to do, so little people to trust, though.

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